Thai Ha vinh

Main Article Content


BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylene) are a cause of concern because they are potential carcinogens and adversely affect human health. In urban areas, BTEX pollution in the air comes mainly from vehicles. In this study, 24-hour sampling was conducted in dry and rainy seasons to determine the level of BTEX in the air of major intersections in Cau Giay and Dong Da Districts, Hanoi. Samples were taken at center of the intersections and three distances from the center, i.e., 20, 50 and 100 m. The concentrations of B/T/E/X at O Cho Dua (Dong Da) intersection were 0.21-32.69/ 19.43-159.74/0.27-33.45/0.44- 89.69 μg/m3, respectively; at the intersection of Xuan Thuy (Cau Giay) 0.55-14.16/3.17-107.04/0.86-24.41/1.06-53.01 μg/m3, respectively. Health risks for adults living near intersections were identified. The risk of carcinogenicity with regard to benzen > 1 part per million (regulated by CALEPA), the risk to health of toluen < 1. People living within 20-meter radius may be exposed more frequenty to BTEX through respiration. The risk to health is therefore more obvious. Effects of BTEX on health were lower at the distances of 50 and 100 m from intersection centers.


Keywords: BTEX, Health Risk Assessement, Intersection, Hanoi.


[1] Monod A., Sive, B.C., Avino P., et al, Monoaromatic compounds in ambient air of various cities: a focus on correlations between the xylenes and ethylbenzene, Atmospheric Environ. 35(1) (2001) 135.
[2] Bộ Tài nguyên và Môi trường, Báo cáo hiện trạng môi trường quốc gia năm 2016, Chuyên đề: môi trường đô thị, Hà Nội, 2017.
[3] Thai Ha Vinh, Nguyen Cong Tap, Do Quang Huy, Do Tran Hai, Characteristics of BTEX Pollution in Air at some Intersections in Hanoi City, VNU Journal of Science: Earth and Environmental Sciences, Vol. 32, No. 3 (2016) 99.
[4] IARC, Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, IARC, Lyon, 2010.
[5] Asante-Duah D. K., Hazardous waste risk assessement, Lewis publishers, FL, USA, 1993.
[6] La Grea M. D., Buckingham P. L., Evans J. C., Hazardous Waste management, McGraw Hill, New York, 1994.
[7] Lê Thị Hồng Trân, Đánh giá rủi ro sức khỏe và Đánh giá rủi ro sinh thái, NXB Khoa học và kỹ thuật, Hà Nội, 2008.
[8] Yujie Zhang, Yujing Mu, Jungfeng Liu, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Level, sources and health risks of carbonyls and BTEX in the ambient air of Beijing, China, Journal of Environmental Sciences 24(1) (2012) 124.
[9] The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental management and University of Tennessee, The Risk Assessment Information System, Chemical data Profiles, U.S. Department of Energy, US, 2006, (
[10] Standards Development Branch Ontario Ministriy of the Environment, Ontario’s Ambient air quality Criteria, Canada, 2012, (www.airqualityontario. com/downloads/AmbientAirQualityCri- teria.pdf)
[11] Dutta C., Som D., Chatterjee A., Mukherjee A. K., Jana T. K., Sen S., Mixing ratios of carbonyls and BTEX in ambient air of Kolkata, India and their associated health risk, Environmental Monitoring and Assessement, 148(1-4) (2009) 97.
[12] Vu Van Hieu, Le Xuan Quynh, Pham Ngoc Ho, Luc Hens, Health Risk Assessment of Mobility-Related Air Pollution in Ha Noi, Vietnam, Journal of Environmental Protection 4 (2013) 1165.