Main Article Content
As a pioneer ecosystem located at land–water interface in the tropic, there exist always many risks from the seasideto mangroves, especially due to impacts of climate change and sea level rise. Land subsidence is a local problem that can exacerbate the impacts of these geo-hazards. This contribution presents a result of shallow subsidence carried out by using SET-MH technique (developed by the United States Geological Survey) in the core zone of the National Park. The measurement shows the average sedimentation rate of 2.9 cm /yr and the sinking rate of -3.4 cm / yr, since Dec. 30th 2012.
As a simple and low cost method could provide more useful information to help identify the generally sinking trend of coastal areas in the Red River Delta and also to protect its own biosphere reserve.
Keywords: Mangrove, shallow subsidence, SET-MH technique.
 J. C. Ellison,Geomorphology and sedimentology of mangrove. In Coastal wetlands: An integrated ecosystem approach, Elservier, 2009.
 LOICZ report 25, 1993.
 IPCC, Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, 2014.
 D.C. Donato, J. B. Kauffman, D. Murdiyarso, K. Sofyan, Melanie Stidham, Markku Kanninen, Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics, Nature Geoscience 4 (2011) 293.
 R. Costanza, R. Groot, P. Sutton, Sander van der Ploeg, S.J. Anderson, Ida Kubiszewski, S. Farber, R. K. Turner, Changes in the global value of ecosystem services, Global Environmental Change 26 (2014) 152.
 T.C. Jennerjahn, E. Gilman, K.W. Krauss, L.D. Lacerda, I. Nordhaus, E. Wolanski, Mangrove Ecosystems: A Global Biogeographic Perspective, Springer, 2017.
 P.V. Hieu, L.V. Dung, N.T. Tue, K. Omori, Will restored mangrove forests enhance sediment organic carbon and ecosystem carbon storage? Regional Studies in Marine Science 14 (2017) 43.
 R.J. Nicholls, A. Cazenave, Sea-Level Rise and Its Impact on Coastal Zones, Science 328 (2010) 1517.
 J.P. Ericson, C.J. VÖrÖsmarty, S.L. Dingman, L. G. Ward, M. Meybeck, Effective sea-level rise and deltas: causes of change and human dimension implications, Global and planetary change 50 (2006)63.
 J.P.M. Syvitski, Deltas at risk,Sustainability Science 3 (2008) 23.
 N.V. Kỳ, L.X. Thuyên, Đ.H. Hải, Đ.V. Lĩnh, Lún mặt đất tại đồng bằng sông Cửu Long: phải chăng do khai thác nước dưới đất? Tạp chí Địa Chất, số 352-354 (2015).
 T.E. Törnqvist, D.J. Wallace, J.E.A. Storms, J. Wallinga, R.L. van Dam, M. Blaauw, M.S. Derksen, C.J. W. Klerks, C. Meijneken, E.M.A. Snijders, Mississippi Delta subsidence primarily caused by compaction of Holocene strata, Nature Geoscience 1 (2008) 173.
 L.E. Erban, S.M. Gorelick, H.A. Zebker, S. Fendorf, Release of arsenic to deep groundwater in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, linked to pumping-induced land subsidence, PNAS, 110 (2013) 13751.
 H.J. Nienhuis, T.E. Törnqvist, K.L. Jankowski, A.M. Fernandes, M.E. Keogh, A New Subsidence Map for Coastal Louisiana, GSA Today, 2017.
 D. R Cahoon, J.C. Lynch, Vertical accretion and shallow subsidence in a mangrove forest of southwestern Florida, USA, Mangroves and Salt Marshes 1 (1997) 173.
 K.W. Krauss, K. L. McKee., C.E. Lovelock, D.R. Cahoon, N. Saintilan, R. Reef, C. Luzhen, How mangrove forests adjust to rising sea level, New Phytologist 202 (2014) 19.
 C.E. Lovelock, D.R. Cahoon, D. A. Friess, G.R. Guntenspergen, K.W. Krauss, R. Reef, K. Rogers, M. L. Saunders, F. Sidik, A. Swales, N. Saintilan, L.X. Thuyen, T. Triet, The vulnerability of Indo-Pacific mangrove forest to sea-level rise, Nature 526 (2015) 559.
 D.M.Duc, M.T. Nhuan, C.V. Ngoi, An analysis of coastal erosion in the tropical rapid accretion delta of the Red River, Vietnam,Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 43 (2002) 98.
 H.T. Hải, H.T.T. Nhàn, Hiện trạng đa dạng sinh học của vườn quốc gia Xuân Thủy, NXB Hồng Đức, 2015.
 N.T. Tue, N.T. Ngoc, T.D. Quy, H. Hamaoka, M. T. Nhuan, K. Omori, A cross-system analysis of sedimentary organic carbon in the mangrove ecosystems of Xuan Thuy National Park, Vietnam, Journal of Sea Research 67 (2012) 69.
 Kịch bản dự báo biến đổi khí hậu và nước biển dâng cho Việt Nam, Bộ Tài nguyên và Môi trường, 2016.
 J.C. Lynch, P. Hensel, D.R. Cahoon, The surface elevation table and marker horizon technique: A protocol for monitoring wetland elevation dynamics. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado, 2015.
 Lower Mekong Monitoring Network: Assessing the Impacts of Dams and Climate Change on Mekong Wetlands. http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/set.
 P. Van Santen, P.G.E.F. Augustinus, B.M. Janssen-Stelder, S. Quartel, N.H. Tri, Sedimentation in an estuarine mangrove system, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 29 (2007) 566.
 D.M. Alongi, The Impact of Climate Change on Mangrove Forests, Current Climate Change Reports 1 (2015) 30.
 R. Rietbroek, S-E. Brunnabend, J. Kusche, J. Schröter,C. Dahle, Revisiting the contemporary sea-level budget on global and regional scales, PNAS 113 (2016) 1504.
 P. Q. Sơn, N. Đ. Anh, Diễn biến xói lở-bồi tụ ven biển Hải Hậu (Nam Định) và vùng lân cận trong hơn 100 năm qua trên cơ sở phân tích tài liệu bản đồ địa hình và tư liệu viễn thám đa thời gian, Tạp chí Các khoa học về Trái đất 38 (2016) 118.
 N.T. Tue, T.D. Quy, A. Amano, H. Hamaoka, S. Tanabe, M.T. Nhuan, K. Omori. Historical profiles of trace element concentrations in mangrove sediments from the Ba Lat Estuary, Red River, Vietnam, Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 223 (2012) 1315.
 Liviu Giosan, J. Syvitski, S. Constantinescu, J. Day, Protect the world’s deltas, Nature 516 (2014) 31.
 P.T.X. Binh, L.T.P. Quynh, L.N. Da, D.T. Thuy, Recent change (2000-2015) of total suspended solid flux of the Red river: Impact of dam/reservoir impoundment in the upstream river basin,Proceeding of the Third International Conference on Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Study – ECSS, 2017, HCMC 7 Nov. 2017.
 V.D. Vinh, S. Ouillon, T.D. Thanh, L.V. Chu, Impact of the Hoa Binh dam (Vietnam) on water and sediment budgets in the Red River basin and delta, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 18 (2014) 3987.
 B.R. Couvillion, J.A. Barras, G.D. Steyer, W. Sleavin, M. Fischer, H. Beck, N. Trahan., Griffin B., Heckman D., Land area change in coastal Louisiana from 1932 to 2010: USGS- Scientific Investigations Map 3164, scale 1:265,000, (2011), 12 p.
 D.J. Stanley, A.G. Warrne, Nile delta in its destruction phase,Journal of Coastal Research, 14 (1998) 794.
 R. E. Turner, The mineral sediment loading of the modern Mississippi River Delta: what is the restoration baseline? Journal of Coastal Conservation 21 (2017) 867.
 Louisiana’s 2012 Coastal Master Plan. http://coastal.la.gov/a-common-vision/2012-coastal-master-plan/
 T. Hiroshi, Design Considerations of Artificial Mangrove Embankments for Mitigating Coastal Floods – Adapting to Sea-level Rise and Long-term Subsidence, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., doi:10.5194/nhess-2017-61.
 T. Hiroshi, M. Takahito, F. Daisuke, E. Miguel, K. Shota, Mangrove forest against dyke-break-induced tsunami on rapidly subsiding coasts, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 16, (2016) 1629.
 Bas W. Borsje, Bregje K. van Wesenbeeck, Frank Dekker, Peter Paalvast, Tjeerd J. Bouma, Marieke M. van Katwijk, Mindert B. de Vries, How ecological engineering can serve in coastal protection, Ecological Engineering 37 (2011) 113.
 Ariana E. Sutton-Grier, Kateryna Wowk, Holly Bamford, Future of our coasts: The potential for natural and hybrid infrastructure to enhance the resilience of our coastal communities, economies and ecosystems, Environmental Science and Policy 51 (2015) 137.
 T.J. Wells, M.J. Coleman, Periodic mudflat progradation, northeastern coast of South America: a hypothesis, Journal of Sedimentary Research 51 (1981)1069.
 K.W Krauss, C.N. Cormier, M.J. Osland, M.L. Kirwan, S.L. Camille, A. Janet. Nestlerode, R.J. Marc, F.S. Andrew, C.S. Amanda, D.D. Darrin, J. E. Harvey, Alejandro E. Almario, Created mangrove wetlands store belowground carbon and surface elevation change enables them to adjust to sea-level rise, Scientific Reports (2017). DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-01224-2.
 H.T. Hien, C. Marchand, J. Aime, D.H. Nhon, P. N. Hong, N.X. Tung, N.T.K. Cuc, Belowground carbon sequestration in a mature planted mangroves (Northern Viet Nam), Forest Ecology and Management 407 (2018) 191.
 National Academy of Engineering, Responding to the Threat of Sea Level Rise: Proceedings of a Forum, Washington- National Academies Press, 2017. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/24847.