Ngo The An, Ngo Phuong Lan, Vo Huu Cong, Nong Huu Duong, Nguyen Thi Huong Giang

Main Article Content


This study focuses on the environmental pressure of waste generated from pig farming in Yen Dung district. Terrain analysis of the digital elevation model (DEM) was used to delineate the sub-basin map where pollutants accumulated. Then we combined this map with land use map and statistical data for determining the distribution of pollutant discharged sources. Based on the pollution load coefficient prescribed by the Vietnam Environment Administration, the loads from all sources, including pig farming, were estimated for entire sub-basins within the district. The results show that the pollutant load from pig farming accounts for a large proportion and creates a major pressure on the local environment. The pollutant from pig farming greatly influences the spatial distribution of pollutant loads across sub-basins. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the waste management at pig farms (households and farm) to ensure the effectiveness of the environmental protection for the communities.

Keywords: livestock waste, pollutant load mapping, pig farming.


[1] MONRE, Rural environment: Country environment report 2014, Ministry of Natural resource and Environment (MONRE), Hanoi, 2014.
[2] Nguyen Thanh Thao, Duong Thi Hanh, Le Trung Viet, Nguyen Quang Trung, Application of AIQS-DB software for analyzing organic compounds in wastewater in pig farms in Bac Giang province, Bio-physio chemistry analysis journal 21 (2016) 19-24.
[3] T.K.V. Vu, M.T. Tran, T.T.S. Dang, A survey of manure management on pig farms in Northern Vietnam, Livestock Science 112 (2007) 288-297.
[4] N. Pham, T. Kuyama, T.H.V. Dinh, T.S. Cao, C.H. Vo, Situation Analysis on Pig Manure and Effluent Management in Vietnam, WEPA Action Programme in Vietnam, Tokyo, 2017.
[5] T.P. Tee, J.B. Liang, E.S. Chew, Z.A. Jelan, T.C. Loh, P. Loganathan, Mapping waste distribution in intensive pig production areas using GIS, O/4'h International Livestock Waste Management Symposium, Penang, 2002.
[6] Fuliang Deng, Tao Lin, Yue Zhao, Ying Yuan, Zoning and Analysis of Control Units for Water Pollution Control in the Yangtze River Basin, China, Sustainability 9 (2017) e1374. 10.3390/su9081374.
[7] T.P. Robinson, G. R.W. Wint, G. Conchedda, T.P. Van Boeckel, V. Ercoli, E. Palamara, G. Cinardi, L. D'Aietti, S.I. Hay, M. Gilbert, Mapping the global distribution of livestock. PloS one, 9 (2014) e96084. 6084.
[8] P. Gerber, P. Chilonda, G. Franceschini, H. Menzi, Geographical trends in livestock densities and nutrient balances in South, East and South-East Asia, Livestock Environment and Development Initiative (LEAD), FAO, Rome, 2005.
[9] Nguyen Thi Thoai Nghi, Application of GIS for management of waste sources from livestock raising and slaughtering activities in O Mon District Can Tho City, Can Tho University, Can Tho, 2017.
[10] Ngo The An, Tran Nguyen Bang, Modelling for Environmental management, Vietnam Education publishing house, Hanoi, 2015.
[11] VEA, Decision number 154/QĐ-TCMT dated 15/2/2019 re. Issueing technical guideline on estimating Total maximal dialy load of rever water, Vietnam Environment Administration (VEA), Honoi, 2019.
[12] J.P. Wilson, Environmental Applications of Digital Terrain Modeling, Wiley-Blackwell Press, New Jersey, 2018.
[13] L. Wang, H. Liu, An efficient method for identifying and filling surface depressions in digital elevation models for hydrologic analysis and modelling, Geographical Information Science 20 (2006) 193-213. 8810500433453.
[14] O. Conrad, B. Bechtel, M. Bock, H. Dietrich, E. Fischer, L. Gerlitz, J. Wehberg, V. Wichmann, J. Böhner, System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA), Geoscientific Model Development Discussions 8 (2015) 2271-2312.
[15] R. Rebba, S. Huang, Y. Liu, S. Mahadevan, Statistical validation of simulation models, Materials and Product Technology 25 (2006) 164-181. =31144478884&partnerID=8YFLogxK.
[16] P.C. Kleijnen, Validation of models: statistical techniques and data availability, Proceedings of the 31st conference on Winter simulation: Simulation a bridge to the future 1 (1999) 647–654.
[17] F.A.A. Kingdom, N. Prins, Model comparison - Psychophysics (Second Edition): A Practical Introduction, Elsevier Ltd, Amsterdam, 2016.
[18] J. Long, C. Robertson, Comparing spatial patterns. Geography Compass 12 (2017) e12356. https://
[19] S. Ferson, W.L. Oberkampf, L. Ginzburg, Model validation and predictive capability for the thermal challenge problem, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 197 (2008) 2408-2430.
[20] Xuyuan Liu, Statistical validation and calibration of computer models, School of Industrial and Systems Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology, Georgia, 2011.
[21] R.E. Kass, A.E. Raftery, Bayes Factors, Journal of the American Statistical Association 90 (1995) 773-795. 10476572.
[22] Bac Giang DAV, Report on Animal production of Bac Giang province, Bac Giang Departnemt of Animal husbandry and Veterinary (DAV), Bac Giang province, 2018.
[23] J.R. Landis, G.G. Koch, The Measurement of Observer Agreement for Categorical Data. Biometrics 33 (1977) 159-174. 10.2307/2529310.