Le Thi Hien, Nguyen Thi Phuong Hue, Le Trong Duc, Vu Thi Huyen, Le Thi Van, Hoang Thi Giang, Chu Duc Ha, Nguyen Thanh Ha, Nguyen Duy Phuong, Le Huy Ham

Main Article Content

Abstract

Bacterial blight is one of the most devastating rice diseases that cause huge economic loss worldwide. The cause of rice blight is Gram negative bacteria Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae
(X. oryzae pv. Oryzae). Since both silver nanoparticles and chitosan have antibacterial, antifungal and growth-stimulating effect, this work has focused on synthesizing chitosan stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgCSs) with small sizes and in vitro evaluating antibacterial activity against
X. oryzae pv. oryzae bacteria. AgCSs were chemically synthesized by reducing silver nitrate by borohydride sodium in the presence of chitosan with optimization of the concentration of the reactants. AgCSs were characterized by UV/vis absorption spectra, field emission scanning electronic microscopy (FESEM), ImageJ software, zeta potential measurement, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction. AgCSs have spherical configuration and narrow size distributions with different average sizes from 15 nm to 25 nm depending on the initial concentration of silver nitrate. All AgCSs colloidal systems were stable and exhibited no tendency for coagulation more than 5 months. It was the first time that chitosan-stabilized silver nanoparticles were assessed the in vitro antibacterial activity against bacterial blight VXO_281 strain. The disc diffusion method demonstrated that the smallest size silver nanoparticles (AgCS1) showed high antibacterial effect against the X. oryzae pv. oryzae VXO_281 strain with a concentration of more than 5 µg/mL and the inhibition zone was dose-dependent. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of AgCS1 against X. oryzae pv. oryzae VXO_281 were 2.5 µg/mL and 20 µg/mL, respectively.

Keywords: Silver nanoparticles , chitosan, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, bacterial blight disease of rice.

References

[1] International Rice Research Institute, https://www.irri.org/disease-and-pest-resistant-rice/, (accessed on: February 10th, 2020).
[2] M. Sullivan, E. Daniells, C. Southwick, CPHST Pest Datasheet for Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CPHST, 2016.
[3] S. Mishra, X. Yang, S. Ray, L. F. Fraceto, H. B. Singh, Antibacterial and Biofilm Inhibition Activity of Biofabricated Silver Nanoparticles Against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Causing Blight Disease of Rice Instigates Disease Suppression, World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol. 36, 2020, pp. 55-64.
[4] H. Shang, Z. Zhou, X. Wu, X. Li, Y. Xu, Sunlight-induced Synthesis of Non-target Biosafety Silver Nanoparticles for the Control of Rice Bacterial Diseases, Nanomaterials, 2007.
[5] J. Cui, Y. Liang, D. Yang, Y. Liu, Facile Fabrication of Rice Husk Based Silicon Dioxide Nanospheres Loaded with Silver Nanoparticles as a Rice Antibacterial Agent, Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, 2016, pp. 21423-21432.
[6] Y. Abdallah, M. Liu, S. O. Ogunyemi, T. Ahmed,
H. Fouad, A. Abdelazez, C. Yan, Y. Yang, J. Chen, B. Li, Bioinspired Green Synthesis of Chitosan and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles with Strong Antibacterial Activity Against Rice Pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Molecules, Vol. 25, 2020, pp. 4795-4812.
[7] S. Agnihotri, S. Mukherji, S. Mukherji, Size-controlled Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Over the Range 5-100 nm Using the Same Protocol and Their Antibacterial Efficacy, Royal Society of Chemistry Advances, Vol. 4, 2014, pp. 3974-3983.
[8] Y. A. Krutyakov, A. A. Kudrinskiy, P. M. Zherebin, A. D. Yapryntsev, M. A. Pobecdinskaya, S. N. Elansky, A. N. Denisov, D. M. Mikhaylov G. L. Lisichkin, Tallow Amphopolycarboxyglycinate-stabilized Silver Nanoparticles: New Frontiers in Development of Plant Protection Products with a Broad Spectrum of Action Against Phytopathogens, Materials Research Express, Vol. 3, 2016, pp. 075403-07541.
[9] M. Kumari, P. Pandey, A. Bhattacharya, A. Mishra, C. S. Nautiyal, Protective Role of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles Against Early Blight Disease in Solanum lycopersicum, Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Vol. 121, 2017, pp. 216-225.
[10] M. S. Nejad, G. H. Shahidi Bonjar, M. Khatami, A. Amini, S. Aghighi, In Vitro and in Vivo Antifungal Properties of Silver Nanoparticles Against Rhizoctonia Solani, a Common Agent of Rice Sheath Blight Disease, IET Nanobiotechnol, Vol. 11, 2017, pp. 236-240.
[11] O. V. Zakharova, A. A. Gusev, P. M. Zherebin, E. V. Skripnikova, M. K. Skripnikova, V. E. Ryzhikh, G. V. Lisichkin, O. A. Shapoval, M. E. Bukovskii, Y. A. Krutyakov, Sodium Tallow Amphopolycarboxyglycinate-stabilized Silver Nanoparticles Suppress Early and Late Blight of Solanum Lycopersicum and Stimulate the Growth of Tomato Plants, BioNanoScience, 2017.
[12] Y. A. Krutyakov, A. A. Kudrinskiy, P. M. Zherebin, G. V. Lisichkin, Correlation between the Rate of Silver Nanoparticle Oxidation and Their Biological Activity: the Role of the Capping Agent, Journal of Nanoparticle Research, Vol. 21, 2019, pp. 69-85.
[13] M. M. A. Mondal, M. A. Malek, A. B. Puteh, M. R. Ismail, M. Ashrafuzaman, L. Naher, Effect of Foliar Application of Chitosan on Growth and Yield in Okra, Australian Journal of Crop Science, Vol. 6, 2012, pp. 918-921.
[14] M. A. Trzcińska, A. Bogusiewicz, M. Szkop, S. Drozdowski, Effect of Chitosan on Disease Control and Growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in a Forest Nursery, Forests, Vol. 6, 2015, pp. 3165-3176.
[15] M. Sathiyabama, G. Akila, R. C. Einstein, Chitosan-induced Defence Responses in Tomato Plants Against Early Blight Disease Caused by Alternaria solani (Ellis and Martin) Sorauer, Archives Of Phytopathology And Plant Protection, Vol. 47, 2014, pp. 1777-1787.
[16] C. Pansara, R. Mishra, T. Mehta, A. Parikh, S. Garg, Formulation of Chitosan Stabilized Silver Nanoparticle-containing Wound Healing Film: In Vitro and in Vivo Characterization, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 109, 2020, pp. 2196-2205.
[17] L. Pourzahedi, M. Eckelman, Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Silver Nanoparticle Synthesis Routes, Environmental Science Nano, Vol. 5, 2015, pp. 361-369.
[18] F. Laghrib, N. Ajermoun, M. Bakasse, S. Lahrich, M. A. El Mhammedi, Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Assisted by Chitosan and Its Application to Catalyze the Reduction of
4-nitroaniline, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Vol. 135, 2019, pp. 752-759.
[19] S. Bhardwaj, N. Bhardwaj, Y. Negi. Effect of Degree of Deacetylation of Chitosan on Its Performance as Surface Application Chemical for Paper-based Packaging, Cellulose, Vol. 27, 2020, pp. 5337-5352
[20] E. Ibrahim, H. Fouad, M. Zhang, Y. Zhang, W. Qiu, C. Yan, B. Li, J. Moc, J. Chen, Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Endophytic Bacteria and Their Role in Inhibition of Rice Pathogenic Bacteria and Plant Growth Promotion, Royal Society of Chemistry Advances, Vol. 9, 2019, pp. 29293-29299.
[21] T. Ahmed, M. Shahid, M. Noman, M. Niazi,F. Mahmood, I. Manzoor, Y. Zhang, B. Li, Y. Yang, C. Yan, J. Chen, Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Using Bacillus Cereus SZT1 Ameliorated the Damage of Bacterial Leaf Blight Pathogen in Rice, Pathogens, Vol. 9, 2020, pp. 160-176.