Main Article Content
The bioelectrochemical system (SBES) is expected to become a novel alternative energy source with numerous outstanding potentials. Nevertheless, there are a few challenges that need to be overcome before it can be applied in practice. One of those problems is the voltage decreases or voltage reversals of the system. The control of voltage reversal will be crucial for long-term operation of SBES. In this study, we studied the effects of different environmental factors such as light, temperature and air humidity and of internal SBES factors such as sulfate concentration, dissolved oxygen concentration and biofilm formation on voltage reversal in the SBES. Light, temperatute and air humidity did not appear to be associated to voltage reversal. On the other hand, the change in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and biofilm formation on the cathode appeared to be the major factors causing such phenomenon. Therefore, aeration and frequent replacements of the cathode are suggested to overcome the problem, which will help to enhance the practical applicability of the SBES.
 C. E. Reimers et al., Harvesting Energy from the Marine Sediment - Water Interface, Environmental Science and technology, Vol. 35, No. 1, 2001, pp. 192-195.
 P. Aelterman et al., Continuous Electricity Generation at High Voltages and Currents Using Stacked Microbial Fuel Cells, Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 40, No. 10, 2006, pp. 3388-3394.
 K. Kubota et al., Operation of Sediment Microbial Fuel Cells in Tokyo Bay, an Extremely Eutrophicated Coastal Sea, Bioresource Technology Reports, Vol. 6, 2019, pp. 39-45.
 Y. Sharma, B. Li, The Variation of Power Generation with Organic Substrates in Single-chamber Microbial Fuel Cells (SCMFCs), Bioresource Technology, Vo. 101, No. 6, 2010, pp. 1844-1850.
 T. Sajana, M. Ghangrekar, A. Mitra, Application of Sediment Microbial Fuel Cell for in Situ Reclamation of Aquaculture Pond Water Quality, Aquacultural Engineering, Vol. 57, 2013, pp. 101-107.
 P. T. Hai et al., A Laboratory-scale Study of the Applicability of a Halophilic Sediment Bioelectrochemical System for in Situ Reclamation of Water and Sediment in Brackish Aquaculture Ponds: Effects of Operational Conditions on Performance, Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol. 29, No. 10, 2019, pp. 1607-1623.
 P. T. Hai et al., A Laboratory-scale Study of the Applicability of a Halophilic Sediment Bioelectrochemical System for in Situ Reclamation of Water and Sediment in Brackish Aquaculture Ponds: Establishment, Bacterial Community and Performance Evaluation, 2019.
 L. Cheng, S. B. Quek, R. C. Ruwisch, Hexacyanoferrate‐adapted Biofilm Enables the Development of a Microbial Fuel Cell Biosensor to Detect Trace Levels of Assimilable Organic Carbon (AOC) in Oxygenated Seawater, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. 111. No. 12, 2014, pp. 2412-2420.
 S. E. Oh, B. E. Logan, Voltage Reversal During Microbial Fuel Cell Stack Operation, Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 167, No. 1, 2007, pp. 11-17.
 B. E. Logan, Microbial Fuel Cells, John Wiley and Sons, 2008.
 A. Eaton et al., Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 20th edn American Public Health Association: Washington, DC, USA (Google Scholar), 1998.
 I. Vyrides, D. Stuckey, A Modified Method for the Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) for Samples with High Salinity and Low Organics, Bioresource Technology, Vol. 100, No. 2, 2009, pp. 979-982.
 J. B. Hammond, N. J. Kruger, The Bradford Method for Protein Quantitation, in New Protein Techniques, Springer, 1988, pp. 25-32.
 S. W. Hong et al., Experimental Evaluation of Influential Factors for Electricity Harvesting from Sediment Using Microbial Fuel Cell, Bioresource Technology, Vol. 100, No. 12, 2009, pp. 3029-3035.
 Y. Ahn, F. Zhang, B. E. Logan, Air Humidity and Water Pressure Effects on the Performance of Air-cathode Microbial Fuel Cell Cathodes, Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 247, 2014, pp. 655-659.
 D. E. Holmes et al., Protozoan Grazing Reduces the Current Output of Microbial Fuel Cells, Bioresource Technology, Vol. 193, 2015, pp. 8-14.
 Y. Zhang et al., Effect of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration on Nitrogen Removal and Electricity Generation in Self pH-buffer Microbial Fuel Cell, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 45, No. 58, 2020, pp. 34099-34109.
 Q. Tao et al., Effect of Dissolved Oxygen on Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal and Electricity Production in Microbial Fuel Cell, Bioresource Technology, Vol. 164, 2014, pp. 402-407.
 R. Rossi et al., In Situ Biofilm Removal from Air Cathodes in Microbial Fuel Cells Treating Domestic Wastewater, Bioresource Technology, Vol. 265, 2018, pp. 200-206.
 B. Erable et al., Iron-nicarbazin Derived Platinum Group Metal-free Electrocatalyst in Scalable-size Air-breathing Cathodes for Microbial Fuel Cells, Electrochimica Acta, Vol. 277, 2018, 127-135.
 W. Liu et al., Influence of Soluble Microbial Products on the Long-term Stability of Air Cathodes in Microbial Fuel Cells, Electrochimica Acta, Vol. 261, 2018, pp. 557-564.
 F. Zhang, D. Pant, B. E. Logan, Long-term Performance of Activated Carbon Air Cathodes with Different Diffusion Layer Porosities in Microbial Fuel Cells, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Vol. 30, No. 1, 2011, pp. 49-55.