Pham Minh Hen, Nguyen Manh Hoang, Dao Huu Thinh, Le Hai Long, Nguyen Duc Canh, Vo Huu Cong

Main Article Content


This study aims to evaluate the microplastic production and its occurence in water and sediment from Minh Khai commune, Hung Yen province. Research on the scales and methods of plastic recycling was conducted in 10 different manufacturing facilities. We quantified and classified microplastics present in water, sediment, and aquatic animal samples in the canals that receive      wastewater from the production facilities. The results show that the plastic recycling village currently has 48 plastic recycling facilities in operation, the average amount of recycled plastic is 2.21 ± 0.095 tons/household/day. There are 8 main disposal points that discharge wastewater                    . The measured discharging rate is 15.1-16.8 m3/h. The microplastic content in the environment was found to be 0.33 ± 0.05 g/L, in which microplastics had 0.03 g/L. In river water, of all the microplastic we found, 67% were plastic flakes and 33% were other plastics. In the sediment, 0.45% were microplastics and 4.63% were plastic fragments. This is the first study to detect and quantify microplastics in the environment from the plastic recycling village. It is necessary to expand research in wastewater discharging points to complete the process of quantifying and classifying microplastics.


Keywords: Microplastics, plastic recycle, plastic generation, transport, pollution.


[1] M. Cole, P. Lindeque, C. Halsband, T. S. Galloway, Microplastics as Contaminants in The Marine Environment: A Review. Mar Pollut Bull, Vol. 62, No. 12, 2011, pp. 2588-2597, https://doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.09.025.
[2] F. A. E. Lots, B. Paul; V. G. Martina, H. A. Alice, A Large-Scale Investigation of Microplastic Contamination: Abundance and Characteristics of Microplastics in European Beach Sediment. Mar Pollut Bull, Vol. 123, No. 1-2, 2017, pp. 219-226,
[3] A. L. Andrady, The Plastic in Microplastics: A Review. Mar Pollut Bull, Vol. 119, No. 1, 2017,
pp. 12-22,
[4] R. C. Moore, L. Loseto, M. Noel,
A. Etemadifar, J. D. Brewster, S. Macphee,
L. Bendell, P. Ross, Microplastics In Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus Leucas) From The Eastern Beaufort Sea. Mar Pollut Bull, Vol. 150, 2020,
pp. 110723,
[5] M. Zobkov, E. Esiukova, A. Zyubin, I. Samusev, Microplastic Content Variation in Water Column: The Observations Employing A Novel Sampling Tool In Stratified Baltic Sea. Mar Pollut Bull,
Vol. 138, 2019, pp. 193-205,
[6] Y. Wang, X. Zou, C. H. Peng, S. Qiao, T. Wang, W. Yu, S. Khokiattiwong, N. Kornkanitnan, Occurrence and Distribution of Microplastics in Surface Sediments from The Gulf of Thailand. Mar Pollut Bull, Vol. 152, 2020, pp. 110916,
[7] H. Lee, H. J. Lee, J. H. Kwon, Estimating Microplastic-bound Intake of Hydrophobic Organic Chemicals by Fish Using Measured Desorption Rates to Artificial Gut Fluid. Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 651, 2019, pp. 162-170,
[8] D. E. Sadler, F. S. Brunner, S. J. Plaistow, Temperature and Clone-Dependent Effects of Microplastics on Immunity and Life History in Daphnia Magna. Environ Pollut, Vol. 255, No. 1, 2019, pp. 113178,
[9] M. Hamed, H. Soliman, A. Osman, A. Sayed., Assessment The Effect of Exposure to Microplastics in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) Early Juvenile: I. Blood Biomarkers. Chemosphere, Vol. 228, 2019, pp. 345-350,
[10] M. Zhu, M. Chernick, D. Rittschof, D. Hinton, Chronic Dietary Exposure to Polystyrene Microplastics in Maturing Japanese Medaka (Oryzias Latipes). Aquat Toxicol, Vol. 220, 2020, pp. 105396,
[11] L. Tosetto, J. E. Williamson, C. Brown, Trophic Transfer of Microplastics Does Not Affect Fish Personality. Animal Behaviour, Vol. 123, 2017, pp. 159-167,
[12] A. Besley, M. Vijver, P. Behrens, T. Bosker,
A Standardized Method for Sampling and Extraction Methods for Quantifying Microplastics in Beach Sand. Mar Pollut Bull, Vol. 114, No. 1, 2017, pp. 77-83,
[13] G. Everaert, L. V. Cauwenberghe, M. De Rijcke, A. Koelmans, J. Mees, M. Vandegehuchte, C. R. Janssen, Risk Assessment of Microplastics in The Ocean: Modelling Approach and First Conclusions. Environ Pollut, Vol. 242(Pt B), 2018, pp. 1930-1938,
[14] T. T. Tham, N. T. Huong, B. T. Phuong,
L. T. Trinh, Assessment of the Distribution and Accumulation of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in the Environment in the Plastic Recycling Village of Minh Khai, Nhu Quynh Town, Hung Yen Province. VNU Journal Of Science: Earth and Environmental Sciences, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2018,
pp. 51-58, /vnuees.4243 (in Vietnamese).
[15] A. Takdastan, M. H. Niari, A. Babaei,
S. Dobaradaran, S. Jorfi, M. Ahmadi, Occurrence And Distribution of Microplastic Particles and the Concentration of Di 2-Ethyl Hexyl Phthalate (Dehp) in Microplastics and Wastewater in the Wastewater Treatment Plant, Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 280, 2020,
pp. 111851,
[16] M. Simon, N. V. Alst, J. Vollertsen, Quantification of Microplastic Mass and Removal Rates at Wastewater Treatment Plants Applying Focal Plane Array (Fpa)-Based Fourier Transform Infrared (Ft-Ir) Imaging. Water Res, Vol. 142, 2018, pp. 1-9,
[17] M. T. Giachet, M. Schilling, K. Mccormick,
J. Mazurek, E. Richardson, H. Khanjian,
T. Learner, Assessment of the Composition and Condition of Animation Cels Made from Cellulose Acetate. Polymer Degradation and Stability,
Vol. 107, 2014, pp. 223-230,
[18] H. Leslie, S. Brandsma, M. V. V. Velzen,
A. Vethaak, Microplastics en Route: Field Measurements in the Dutch River Delta and Amsterdam Canals, Wastewater Treatment Plants, North Sea Sediments and Biota. Environ Int, Vol. 101, 2017, pp. 133-142,
[19] V. M. León, I. M. E. G. Agüera, V. Moltó,
V. F. González, L. L. Pérez, J. Andrade,
S. Muniategui-Lorenzo, J. A. Campillo, PAHs, Pesticides, Personal Care Products and Plastic Additives in Plastic Debris from Spanish Mediterranean Beaches. Sci Total Environ,
Vol. 670, 2019, pp. 672-684,
[20] E. L. Teuten, J. M. Saquing, D. Knappe,
M. Barlaz, Transport and Release of Chemicals from Plastics to the Environment and to Wildlife. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, Vol. 364,
No. 1526, 2009, pp. 2027-45,
https:// doi: 10.1098/rstb.2008.0284.
[21] S. Kühn, J. A. V. Franeker, A. M. O'donoghue, A. Swiers, M. Starkenburg, B. Van Werven, E. Foekema, E. Hermsen, M. E. Holtus,
H. Lindeboom, Details of Plastic Ingestion and Fibre Contamination in North Sea Fishes, Environ Pollut, Vol. 257, 2020, pp. 113569,
[22] L. G. A. Barboza, S. Cunha, C. Monteiro,
J. Fernandes, L. Guilhermino, Bisphenol A and Its Analogs in Muscle and Liver of Fish from the North East Atlantic Ocean in Relation to Microplastic Contamination. Exposure and Risk to Human Consumers. J Hazard Mater, Vol. 393, 2020, pp. 122419,
[23] K. Ding, S. Liu, Y. Huang, S. Liu, N. Zhou,
P. Peng, W. Yunpu, P. Chen, R. Ruan, Catalytic Microwave-Assisted Pyrolysis of Plastic Waste Over NiO and HY for Gasoline-Range Hydrocarbons Production. Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 196, 2019, pp. 1316-1325,