Current Situation and Solutions for Methane (CH4) Emission in Paddy Rice Cultivation in Vietnam
Main Article Content
Abstract: Paddy rice production emits a significant amount of greenhouse gas, particularly methane (CH4). The purpose of this review is to assess the current status of CH4 emissions from paddy rice cultivation in Vietnam and propose solutions for reducing CH4 emissions. CH4 emissions from paddy rice cultivation account for 49.7 million tons of CO2eq (CO2 equivalent) per year in Vietnam. Soil texture, watering regime, and paddy cultivation technique are important in influencing CH4 emissions. Applications of advanced farming techniques such as the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD), and the use of biochar are among the recommended solutions. In summary, paddy rice production is the main source of CH4 emissions, which causes devastating effects on the global climate. Therefore, solutions that may both reduce GHG emissions and increase economic efficiency should be put into practice.
 Prime Minister, Decision No: 896/QD-TTg Dated July 26th, 2022, Approving the National Strategy on Climate Change for the Period to 2050
 IPCC, Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report, Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team,
R. K. Pachauri, L. A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 2014, pp. 1-151.
 Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Third Biennial Update Report to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Dan Tri Publishing House, Hanoi, 2020
 L. Sigg, Redox Potential Measurements in Natural Waters: Significance, Concepts and Problems, in Redox: Fundamentals, Processes and Applications, J. Schüring, H. D. Schulz, W. R. Fischer,
J. Böttcher, W. H. M. Duijnisveld Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2000,
 R. Conrad, Control of Microbial Methane Production in Wetland Rice Fields, Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, Vol. 64, No. 1,
2002, pp. 59-69, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021178713988.
 K. J. Chin, R. Conrad, Intermediary Metabolism in Methanogenic Paddy Soil and the Influence of Temperature, FEMS Microbiology Ecology,
Vol. 18, 2006, pp. 85-102, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.1995.tb00166.x.
 L. T. Angenent, K. Karim, M. H. A. Dahhan,
B. A. Wrenn, R. D. Espinosa, Production of Bioenergy and Biochemicals from Industrial
and Agricultural Wastewater, Trends in Biotechnology, Vol. 22, No. 9, 2004, pp. 477-485, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tibtech.2004.07.001.
 H. Schütz, W. Seiler, R. Conrad, Processes Involved in Formation And Emission of Methane in Rice Paddies, Biogeochemistry, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1989, pp. 33-53, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00000896.
 N. Jain, D. S. Pathak, S. Mitra, A. Bhatia, Emission of Methane from Rice Fields - A Review, J. Sci. Ind. Res., Vol. 63, 2004, pp. 101-115,
 K. Ma, R. Conrad, Y. Lu, Responses of Methanogen mcrA Genes and Their Transcripts to an Alternate Dry/Wet Cycle of Paddy Field Soil, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 78, No. 2, 2012, pp. 445-454, https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.06934-11.
 J. Yuan, X. Yi, L. Cao, Three-Source Partitioning of Methane Emissions from Paddy Soil: Linkage to Methanogenic Community Structure, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol. 20, No. 7, 2019, pp. 1586, https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067 /20/7/1586 (accessed on: September 1st, 2022).
 T. Tokida et al., Effects of Free-air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) and Soil warming on CH4 Emission from a Rice Paddy Field: Impact Assessment and Stoichiometric Evaluation, Biogeosciences, Vol. 7, 2010, pp. 2639-2653, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-7-2639-2010.
 M. Rahman, A. Yamamoto, Methane Cycling in Paddy Field: A Global Warming Issue, 2020,
 K. K. D. Balakrishnan, P. C. Latha,
D. Subrahmanyam, Crop Improvement Strategies for Mitigation of Methane Emissions from Rice, Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 30, No. 6, 2018, pp. 451-462.
 General Statistics Office, Vietnam Statistical Yearbook 2020, Statistical Publishing House, 2020 (in Vietnamese).
 D. V. Diem, N. X. Thanh, T. D. Thin, P. T. Thuy, N. B. Long, N. T. Thuy, D. T. Huyen, P. T. H. Luyen, N. T. Lan, Assessment of Greenhouse gas Emissions from Agriculture Proposing Mitigation and Control Measures for Agriculture and Forestry in Vietnam National Capacity Building to Respond to Climate Change Project in Vietnam to Mitigate and Control GHG Emissions section of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, 2011 (in Vietnamese).
 P. Q. Ha, V. Thang, N. T. Khanh, K. Ito, K. Endoh, K. Inubushi, Assessment of CH4 Emissions from Red River Alluvial Soils and Infertile Gray Soils for Rice Cultivation in the North Region Vietnam, Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development, 2013 (in Vietnamese).
 C. S. Huan, M. V. Trinh, C. V. Ha, B. T. P. Loan, V. T. Hang, D. Q. Hieu, D. T. M. Trang, B. T. T. Trang, Research on Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Rice land Thai Binh Province, Vietnam Agricultural Science Journal, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2020, pp. 113-122 (in Vietnamese).
 H. Q. Tin, T. T. H. Trang, V. V. Binh, T. K. Tinh, N. V. Sanh, Effect of Irrigation Techniques on Yield and Methane (CH4) Emission in Rice Production in Go Cong Tay - Tien Giang, Can Tho University Scientific Journal, Vol. 2, No. 38, 2015, pp. 55-63 (in Vietnamese).
 N. V. Bo, M. V. Trinh, B. T. P. Loan, L. Q. Thanh, P. A. Cuong, N. L. Trang, Urea-agrotain and Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Workshop Second National Crop Science, 2016 (in Vietnamese).
 N. K. Thu, C. V. Phung, T. V. Dung, V. N. M. Tam, H. N. H. Phuc, Effects of Straw Treatment Methods on CH4 Emissions and Rice Yield on Alluvial soil in Thoi Lai, Can Tho, Vietnam Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, Vol. 79,
No. 6, 2017, pp. 50-55 (in Vietnamese).
 T. S. Nam, H. M. Nhut, N. N. B. Tran, H. V. Thao, D. T. Xuan, N. H. Chiem, Effect of Two types of Rice Husk Biochar on CH4 and N2O Emissions from Alluvial Soils Laboratory Equipment,
Can Tho University Science Journal, Topic Issue: Soil Science, Vol. 56, 2020, pp. 109-118
 T. T. K. Loan, P. N. Lan, H. T. Nghia, Solutions to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Rice Production in Huong Tra Town, Thua Thien Hue Province, Science and Technology Journal, School University of Science, Hue University, No. 1,
Vol. 11, 2018, pp. 107-118 (in Vietnamese).
 M. S. Aulakh, J. Bodenbender, R. Wassmann,
H. Rennenberg, Methane Transport Capacity of Rice Plants. I. Influence of Methane Concentration
and Growth Stage Analyzed with an Automated Measuring System, Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, Vol. 58, No. 1, 2000, pp. 357-366, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009831712602.
 H. Q. Tin , N. H. Cuc , N. V. Sanh , N. V. Anh,
J. Hughes, T. T. Hoa, T. T. Ha, Rice Farming with Low Greenhouse Gas Emissions in An Giang Province Winter-spring Crop 2010-2011, Journal of Science Can Tho University, No. 23a, 2012,
pp. 31-41, https://ctujsvn.ctu.edu.vn/index.php/ctujsvn/article/view/247 (accessed on: September 1st, 2022)
 L. T. Anh, H. T. T. Duyen, D. M. Van, D. T. T. Nga, Study on CH4 Emissions in Paddy Rice Cultivation in Different Farming Regimes in Truc Hung, Truc Ninh, Nam Dinh Province, Journal of Soil Science, Vol. 62, Iss. 62, 2021, pp. 36-44
 X. Yanan, S. H. Yang, J. Xu, J. Ding, X. Sun,
Z. Jiang, Effect of Biochar Amendment on Methane Emissions from Paddy Field Under Water-Saving Irrigation, Sustainability, Vol. 10, 2018, pp. 1371, https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051371.
 E. P. A. Pratiwi, Y. Shinogi, Rice Husk Biochar Application to Paddy Soil and its Effects on Soil Physical Properties, Plant Growth, and Methane Emission, Paddy Water Environ, Journal Article 2016, pp. 1-12, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10333-015-0521-z.
 J. Liu et al., Effects of Biochar Amendment on the Net Greenhouse Gas Emission and Greenhouse gas Intensity in a Chinese Double Rice Cropping System, European Journal of Soil Biology, Vol. 65, 2014, pp. 30-39, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejsobi.2014.09.001.
 T. S. Nam, H. V. Khanh, H. M. Nhut, N. H. Chiem, Addition of Rice Husk and Bamboo Biochar Reduces CH4 Emissions of Wetlands Under Laboratory Conditions, Journal of Science Can Tho University, Topic, Environment and Climate Change, Vol. 57, 2021, pp. 32-40, https://doi.org/10.22144/ctu.jsi.2021.047
 Z. Q. Xiong, G. X. Xing, Z. L. Zhu, Nitrous Oxide and Methane Emissions as Affected by Water, Soil and Nitrogen 11 Project Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 30390080 and 30390081), Pedosphere, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2007, pp. 146-155, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(07)60020-4.
 K. R. Brye, C. W. Rogers, A. D. Smartt, R. J. Norman, Soil texture Effects on Methane Emissions from Direct-seeded, Delayed-flood rice Production in Arkansas, Soil Science, Vol. 178, No. 10, 2013, pp. 519-529,
 Y. Huang, Y. Jiao, L. Zong, X. Zheng, R. Sass,
F. M. Fisher, Quantitative Dependence of Methane Emission on Soil Properties, Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, Vol. 64, 2002, pp. 157-167, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021132330268.
 H. Yao, R. Conrad, R. Wassmann, H. U. Neue, Effect of Soil Characteristics on Sequential Reduction and Methane Production in Sixteen Rice Paddy Soils from China, the Philippines, and Italy, Biogeochemistry, Journal Article, Vol. 47, No. 3, 1999, pp. 269-295,
 Y. Huang, R. Sass, F. Fisher, Methane Emission from Texas Rice Paddy Soils. 1, Quantitative Multi-year Dependence of CH4 Emission on Soil, Cultivar and Grain Yield, Vol. 3, No. 6, 1997,
 X. Kong, T. H. Dao, J. Qin, H. Qin, C. Li, F. Zhang, Effects of Soil Texture and Land use Interactions on Organic Carbon in Soils in North China Cities Urban Fringe, Geoderma, Vol. 154, No. 1, 2009, pp. 86-92, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2009.09.016.
 N. K. Thu, Assessment of Greenhouse Gas (N2O and CH4) Emissions on Two Rice Farming Models, Doctoral Thesis in Soil Science, Can Tho University, 2019 (in Vietnamese).
 C. Hattori, A. Ueki, T. Seto, K. Ueki, Seasonal Variations in Temperature Dependence of Methane Production in Paddy Soil, Microbes and Environments, Vol. 16, No. 4, 2001, pp. 227-233, https://doi.org/10.1264/jsme2.2001.227.
 Z. P. Wang, R. D. DeLaune, W. H. P. Jr,
P. H. Masscheleyn, Soil Redox and pH Effects on Methane Production in a Flooded Rice Soil, Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 57,
No. 2, 1993, pp. 382-385, https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1993.03615995005700020016x.
 J. D. Siopongco, R. Wassmann, B. O. Sander, Alternate Wetting and Drying in Philippine Rice Production: Feasibility Study for a Clean Development Mechanism, 2013.
 N. V. Bo, T. M. Tien, N. V. Vien, C. V. Hach,
P. V. Toan, Handbook of Smart Rice Production. Agriculture Publishing House, 2016 (in Vietnamese).