Ngo Vu Thu Hang

Main Article Content


This paper presents basic theoretical knowledge of critical thinking. It describes characteristics of critical thinking, which are used for the formation of critical thinking indicators. These indicators are needed for assessing students’ critical thinking levels and for designing lessons to develop critical thinking competence for students. The paper articulates arguments for highlighting the necessity of critical thinking education for students in Vietnam. The paper contributes to knowledge base of critical thinking education and supports further studies on critical thinking in order to enhance the effectiveness of education in Vietnam.

Keywords: Tư duy phê phán, năng lực, giáo dục, học sinh


Arend, B. (2009). Encouraging critical thinking in online threaded discussions. The Journal of Educators Online, 6(1), doi:
Bacon, F. (1605). The Advancement of Learning. Edited by Joseph Devey, M.A. (New York: P.F. Collier and Son, 1901).
Bailin, S. (2002). Critical thinking and science education. Science & Education, Vol. 11, Issue 4, pp 362-375
Bailin, S., Case, R., Coombs, J. R., & Daniels, L. B. (1999). Conceptualizing critical thinking. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 31(3), 285–302.
Beyer, B. K. (1995). Critical thinking. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.
Biggs, J., 1996. Western misperceptions of the Confucian-heritage learning culture. In D. Watkins & J. Biggs (Eds.), The Chinese learner: Cultural, psychological and contextual influences (pp. 45 – 67). Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong Comparative Education Research Centre.
Bloom B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. New York: David McKay Co Inc.
Bộ Giáo dục và Đào tạo (2018). Dự thảo Chương trình Giáo dục Phổ thông Tổng thể.
Brookfield, S. D. (1987). Developing Critical Thinkers. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco
Chan, S. (1999). The Chinese learning – A question of style. Education and Training, 41(6/7), 294-304.
Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education: An introduction to the philosophy of education. New York: Macmillan.
Đặng Tự Ân, 2015. Mô hình trường học mới Việt Nam nhìn từ góc độ thực tiễn và lí luận. NXB Giáo dục Việt Nam
Đỗ Đình Hoan (2002). Một số vấn đề cơ bản của chương trình tiểu học mới. NXB Giáo dục Việt Nam
Ennis, R. H. (1986). A concept of critical thinking. Havard Educational Review, 22(1): 81-111.
Facione, P. A. (2011). Think Critically, Pearson Education: Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W., (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The internet and higher education, 2(2-3): 87-105
Guyton, J. J. (1984). The effects of teaching cognitive strategies on problem solving skills of baccalaureate nursing students. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Toledo, OH, 1983). Dissertation Abstracts International. 44. 3587-A.
Halpern, D. F. (2006). Is intelligence critical thinking? Why we need a new construct definition for intelligence. In P. Kyllonen, I. Stankov, & R. D. Roberts (Eds.), Extending intelligence: Enhancement and new constructs. Mahwah. NJ: Erlbaum Associates.
Harman, K., & Bich, N. T. N. (2010). Reforming teaching and learning in Vietnam’s higher education system. In G. Harman, M. Hayden, & T. N. Pham (Eds.). Reforming higher education in Vietnam: Challenges and priorities (pp.65-86). London: Springer
Henri, F. (1991). Computer conferencing and content analysis In O'Malley, C. (ed.) Computer Supported Collaborative Learning: Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag
Kokkidou, M. (2013). Critical thinking and school music education: Literature review, research findings, and perspectives. Journal for Learning through the Arts, 9(1), Retrieved from
Koh, D. (2006). Reforms of the Vietnamese education system badly needed. Institute of South East Asian Studies.
Kurfiss, J. G. (1988). Critical thinking: Theory, research, and possibilities. ASHE – ERIC Higher education Report No.2, Washington DC.Macduff, Anne (2005) "Deep Learning, Critical Thinking and Teaching for Law Reform," Legal Education Review: Vol. 15 : Iss. 1 ,Article 6.
Marshall, R. & Tucker, M. (1992). Thinking for a living. New York: Basic Books
Mason, M. (2007). Critical Thinking and Learning. Educational philosophy and theory. Volume 39, Issue 4, Pages 339–349
McCollister, K., & Sayler, M. (2010). Lift the ceiling: Increase rigor with critical thinking skills. Gifted Child Today, 33(1), 41-47.
McPeck, J. (1981). Critical Thinking and Education. St. Martin's Press
Hằng, N. V. T., Meijer, M., Bulte, A. M. W., & Pilot, A. (2015). The implementation of a social constructivist approach in primary science education in Confucian heritage culture: the case of Vietnam. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 10(3), 2015, 665-693.DOI: 10.1007/s11422-014-9634-8
Newman, D., Webb, B., & Cochrane, C. (1995). A content analysis method to measure critical thinking in face-to-face and computer supported group learning. Ipct - J, vol 3 (2), pp. 56-77.
Nguyen Quang Kinh, Nguyen Quoc Chi (2008). Education in Vietnam: Development history, challenges and solutions. In An African Exploration of the East Asian Education Experience, Edited by Birger Fredriksen and Tan Jee Peng, The World Bank, Washington, D. C.
Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2012). The nature and functions of critical & creative thinking. Tomales, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking
Richmond, J. E. D. (2007). Bringing critical thinking to the education of developing country professionals, International Education Journal, v8 n1 p1-29
Ryan, J. & Louie, K. (2007). False dichotomy?: ‘Western’ and ‘Eastern’ concepts of scholarship and learning. Educational Philosophy and Theory (39)4, 404 - 417.
Paul, R., & Scriven, M. (1987). Critical thinking as defined by the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking, Statement presented at the 8th Annual International Conference on Critical Thinking and Education Reform , Berkeley
Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D., Garcia, T., and McKeachie, W. (1991). A Manual for the Use of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
Snodgrass, S. (2011). Wiki activities in blended learning for health professional students: Enhancing critical thinking and clinical reasoning skills. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 27(4), 563-580.
Tsai, P., Chen, S., Chang, H., & Chang, W. (2013). Effects of prompting critical reading of science news on seventh graders’ cognitive achievement. International Journal of Environmental & Science, 8(1), 85-107. doi: 10.1002/tea. 20385.
Tran Thu Ha & Trudy Harpham (2005). Primary education in Vietnam: Extra classes and outcomes. International Education Journal, 6(5), 626-634.
Trilling, B. & Fadel, C. (2009). 21th century skills: Learning for life in our time. Jossey-Bass, USA.
Watkins, D. & Biggs, J.B. (2001). Teaching the Chinese learner: psychological and pedagogical perspectives. Hong Kong/Melbourne: Comparative Education Research Centre/Australian Council for Educational Research
Watson G., Glaser E. M. (1980). Watson-Glaser critical thinking appraisal. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Wollack, J. A. & Fremer, J. (2013) (Eds). Handbook of test security threat. Taylor & Francis