Nguyễn Thị Hoàng Yến, Nguyễn Thị Thu Hương

Main Article Content



- Purpose: This paper aims to present a comparative analysis of Vietnam’s current policies and laws to support persons with disabilities (PWD) in education and the international legal framework, to identify the gaps in policies and practices in localities as well as making recommendations on the necessary conditions for effective  education for people with disabilities in Vietnam;

- Method: Two models of education under study, one inclusive method and one special method for the needed conditions and existing situations. Four factors were taken into account including governance/administration, human resources, financing and coordination. Data were collected through desk research, baseline survey of 63 provinces, and interviews and focus group discussions with education managers, stakeholders from provincial, district and communal levels and with people with disabilities.;

- Result: The National Law on Disability and the National Action Plan on Disability (NAP) showed the advancement ofVietnam in securing the rights of persons with disabilities in all aspects of the society, including education. Of those 25 basic articles of the UN CRPD, 25 were referred and applied in the national law on disability and the NAP, proving the transition of approach to support PWD, from charity to right based. Gaps in policy and practices identified by the PWD and local authorities included: no monitoring mechanism, support standard does not meet the need of PWD, a small number of PWD were entitled to the support policy compared to high number of PWD in need of support. Conditions contributing to the effective inclusive education included: multi-sector coordination of services, human resources, financial resources, and plan making for regular support.

Keywords: Education services for people with disabilities, Policies and practices, Conditions for effective education.


[1] The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
[2] National Law on Disability
[3] Decree Nr.28/NĐ-CP on 10 April 2012 guiding the implementation of the National Law on Disability.
[4] Law on Protection, Care and Education for Children (revised 2004).
[5] Ordinance on Disabled Persons
[6] Resolution 30a/2008/NQ-CP on 27/12/2008 of the Government to approve the Rapid and Sustainable Poverty Reduction Program for 61 Poor Districts .
[7] Resolution 80 /NQ-CP on 19/05/2011 of the Government on Sustainable Poverty Reduction Direction from 2011 to 2020.
[8] Inter-circular Nr. 58/TT-GDĐT-LĐTBXH regulating the establishment, operation, dissolvement of the Center for Inclusive Education Support.
[9] Decision 23/2006/QĐ-BGD&ĐT regulating inclusive education for people with disabilities.
[10] Correpondent Nr. 9890/BGD ĐT-GDTH guiding the contents and approaches for education of students in difficult situation.
[11] The National Action Plan for period 2012-2020 (GVN Decision 1019) – the NAP
[12] A correspondence Nr. 135/SGD&ĐT – GDTH dated 10/ 9/2009 regarding the management and implementation of education for students with disabilities at the primary education level and the detailed guidance regulated in the directive documents of the Education and Training sectors
[13] Correspondence 9890/BGDĐT-GDTH on 17/9/2007; Correspondence 2292/BGDĐT-GDTH, on 19/3/2008 (on education work for children with disabilities).
[14] Correspondence 9547/BGDĐT-GDTH on 13/10/2008 on guiding application of children with disabilities to inclusive education.
[15] Lê Văn Tạc, Bùi Thế Hợp & staff (2008): Thematic Scientific Technology Report at Ministry level, Code B2006-37-22, Development of the Center for Inclusive Education Support for CWD.
Project Report on “Comprehensive Support to CWD in Vinh Long province (2012), Vinh Long DOET.