Main Article Content
Validity in language testing and assessment has its long fundamental role in research along with reliability (Bachman & Palmer, 1996). This paper analyses basic theories and empirical research on language test validity in order to provide the notion, the classification of language test validity, the validation working frames and the trends of empirical research. Four key findings come out from the analysis. Firstly, language test validity refers to an evaluative judgment of the language test quality on the ground of evidence of the integrated components of test content, criterion and consequences through the interpretation of the meaning and utility of test scores. Secondly, construct validity is a dominating term in modern validity classification. The chronic division of construct validity into prior and post ones can help researchers have a clearer validation option. Plus, test validation can be grounded in light of Messick (1989), Bachman (1996) and Weir (2005). Finally, almost all empirical research on test validity the researcher has addressed concerns international and national high-stakes proficiency tests. The research results open gaps in test validation research for the future.