Joachim Spangenberg

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Abstract: Vietnam is at crossroads: being a middle income country now, it has to deal with social, economic and environmental challenges better known from affluent countries, while still being in the transition from an agricultural to an industrial in a society transiting from rural to urban. At the same time, Vietnam has to prepare for the diverse impacts of climate change, a process beyond its control, by developing adaptation measures safeguarding the social and environmental basis of the society and economy. This requires strategic planning with a focus on enhancing the resilience of economy and society; supporting differentiation and diversity is a core element of this, in rural as much as in urban settings. Current policies need to be updated to accommodate both the value of diversity, and the long term perspective required to mitigate climate change impacts.
Keywords: Vietnam, Social Ecological and Economic Transformation, polarisation, industrialisation, urbanisation, market risks, environmental threats.
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