Le Thi Huyen Trang, Dang Hoang Minh

Main Article Content


This study aims to assess forms and functions of four simultaneous types of aggression in high school students. The cross-sectional study of 644 high school students was carried out in Hanoi and Hung Yen province. The Peer Conflict Scale, Youth Self-Report version,  was used. The results show that 99.4% of the students reporting aggressive behavior, with 30.4% reporting "often" and 20.8% reporting "always" performing at least one aggressive behavior. Also, according to the study results, reactive-overt aggression was the most reported, and proactive-overt aggression was the least reported. Unlike many previous studies’ results, the studied female students exhibited a higher level of aggression than the male students and the urban students were more aggressive than their rural peers. More importantly, positive correlation was found among the 4 types of agreesion. The study findings are expected to help develop effective classroom management plans and psychological support for students.

Keywords: Aggressive behaviour, forms and functions of aggression, high school students.


[1] T.T.M. Duc, Aggressive behavior analyzed from a social psychology perspective, Hanoi National University Publisher, Hanoi, 2011 (in Vietnamese).
[2] J. Liu, G. Lewis, L. Evans, "Understanding aggressive behaviour across the lifespan", Journal of psychiatric and mental health nursing 20(2) (2013) 156-168. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2850.2012.01902.x.
[3] D. Nagin, R.E. Tremblay, Trajectories of boys' physical aggression, opposition, and hyperactivity on the path to physically violent and nonviolent juvenile delinquency, Child development 70(5) (1999) 1181-1196. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00086.
[4] J.D. Hawkins, E. Von Cleve, Jr.R.F. Catalano, Reducing early childhood aggression: Results of a primary prevention program, Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 30(2) (1991) 208-217.
[5] J.N. Hughes, T.A. Cavell, Influence of the teacher-student relationship in childhood conduct problems: A prospective study, Journal of clinical child psychology 28(2) (1999) 173-184.
[6] B.K. Hamre, R.C. Pianta, Early teacher-child relationships and the trajectory of children's school outcomes through eighth grade, Child development 72(2) (2001) 625-638.
[7] G. Faretra, A profile of aggression from adolescence to adulthood: An 18-year follow-up of psychiatrically disturbed and violent adolescents, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 51(3) (1981) 439-453.
[8] L. Fortin, Students’ antisocial and aggressive behavior: development and prediction, Journal of Educational Administration 41(6) (2003) 669-688.
[9] A.M. Whipp, T. Korhonen, A. Raevuori, K. Heikkilä, L. Pulkkinen, R.J. Rose, J. Kaprio, E. Vuoksimaa, Early adolescent aggression predicts antisocial personality disorder in young adults: a population-based study, European child & adolescent psychiatry 28(3) (2019) 341-350. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-018-1198-9.
[10] S.C. Yudofsky, J.M. Silver, W. Jackson, J. Endicott, D. Williams, The Overt Aggression Scale for the objective rating of verbal and physical aggression, The American Journal of Psychiatry 143(1) (1986) 35-39. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.143.1.35.
[11] N.R. Crick, J.K. Grotpeter, Relational Aggression, Gender, and Social-Psychological Adjustment. Child Development 66(3) (1995) 710-722. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1995.tb00900.x
[12] M.S. Atkins, D.M. Stoff, Instrumental and hostile aggression in childhood disruptive behavior disorders. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 21 (1993) 165-178.
[13] N.R. Crick, K.A. Dodge, Social Information-Processing Mechanisms in Reactive and Proactive Aggression, Child Development 67(3) (1996) 993-1002. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1996.tb01778.x.
[14] K.A. Dodge, J.E. Lochman, J.D. Harnish, J.E. Bates, G.S. Pettit, Reactive and proactive aggression in school children and psychiatrically impaired chronically assaultive youth. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 106(1) (1997) 37-51. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843x.106.1.37.
[15] K.E. Carlyle, K.J. Steinman, Demographic Differences in the Prevalence, Co-Occurrence, and Correlates of Adolescent Bullying at School, Journal of School Health 77(9) (2007) 623-629. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2007.00242.x.
[16] E.K. Nekvasil, D.G. Cornell, Student reports of peer threats of violence: Prevalence and outcomes, Journal of School Violence 11(4) (2012) 357-375. https://doi.org/10.1080/15388220.2012,706764.
[17] M.J. Muñoz-Rivas, J.L. Graña, K.D. O’Leary, M.P. González, Aggression in adolescent dating relationships: Prevalence, justification, and health consequences, Journal of Adolescent Health 40(4) (2007) 298-304.
[18] T.T.M. Duc, H.X. Dung, Aggressive situation of students in high schools. Asian Research Support Center and Korea Higher Education Foundation, Vietnam’s National University, Hanoi, 2010 (in Vietnamese).
[19] T.V. Cong, N.T. Hong, L.N. Huyen, Overview of the scale of aggression in the world and developing the scale of aggression for junior high school students in Vietnam, Article of Science and Technology Development 3(2) (2017) 76-84 (in Vietnamese).
[20] N.B. Dat, Inadequate behavior by teenagers in violent families, Journal of Psychology 4(175) (2012) 68-75 (in Vietnamese).
[21] M.A. Marsee, C.T. Barry, K.K. Childs, P.J. Frick, E.R. Kimonis, L.C. Muñoz, K.J. Aucoin, G.M. Fassnacht, M.M. Kunimatsu, K.S.L. Lau, Assessing the forms and functions of aggression using self-report: Factor structure and invariance of the peer conflict scale in youth, Psychological Assessment 23(3) (2011) 792-804. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023369.
[22] T.V. Cong, N.T. Hong, L.N. Huyen The reality of aggressive behavior in junior high school students, Proceedings of the Conference on School Violence Prevention in the Current Context and Solutions, VNU Publishing House, Hanoi, 2016, pp. 326-334 (in Vietnamese).
[23] M.A. Marsee, P.J. Frick, C.T. Barry, E.R. Kimonis, L.C. Munoz-Centifanti, K.J. Aucoin, Profiles of the forms and functions of self-reported aggression in three adolescent samples, Development and Psychopathology 26 (2014) 705-720. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579414000339.
[24] American Psychiatric Association, The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). 5 (2013) 271-290.
[25] B. Sommer, Stress and menstrual distress, Journal of Human Stress 4(3) (1978) 5-47.
[26] D.M. Dougherty et al, The influence of menstrual-cycle phase on the relationship between testosterone and aggression, Physiology & behavior 62(2) (1997) 431-435.
[27] S. Helfert, P. Warschburger, The face of appearance-related social pressure: gender, age and body mass variations in peer and parental pressure during adolescence, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 7(1) (2013) 16-27.