Main Article Content
The funds of knowledge approach has been increasingly studied and applied to teaching practices in many developed countries. Learning about students’ funds of knowledge and incorporation into their learning enables teachers to increase relevant learning experiences, empowering a socio-constructivist approach to teaching and learning. It is acknowledged to help students learn meaningfully by connecting lessons to students’ funds of knowledge, especially to ethnic minority students, color, immigrant students, or disadvantaged students. However, there is a lack of studies and papers on the funds of knowledge approach in education in Vietnam. This article aims to introduce this educational approach and contribute to solving the challenges that ethnic minority education in Vietnam is facing. The article also suggests further studies to promote the application of the Funds of knowledge approach in Vietnam, thereby improving the quality of ethnic minority education in Vietnam and value the cultural resources, languages, and local knowledge of ethnic minority groups in Vietnam.
pdf/, 2009 (accessed on: April 15th, 2021) (in Vietnamese).
 J. D. London, Education in Vietnam, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2011.
 N. T. Tran, Factors Associated with Low Educational Motivation Among Ethnic Minority Students in Vietnam, Ritsumeikan Journal of Asia Pacific Studies, Vol. 32, 2013, pp. 124-136.
 T. T. H. Vu, Ethnic Minority Children’s and Adults’ Perceptions and Experiences of Schooling in Vietnam: A Case Study of the Cham H’Roi, In M. Bourdillon, J. Boyden (Eds.), Growing up in Poverty Findings from Young Lives, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, pp. 225-244.
 UNESCO, The Cultural Diversity Programming Lens: A Practical Tool to Integrate Culture in Development - Pedagogical Guide, UNESCO, http://www.unesco.org/new/en/culture/themes/culture-and-development/the-cultural-diversitylens/, 2011 (accessed on: April 15th, 2021) (in Vietnamese).
 World Bank, Vietnam-High Quality Education for All by 2020: Overview/report (English), World Bank
duc0tap10Engl012012.pdf/, 2011 (accessed on: April 15th, 2021) (in Vietnamese).
 UNICEF, Evaluation of Unicef-supported Moet’s Initiative of Mother Tongue Based Bilingual Education in Vietnam 2006 - 2014, UNICEF, https://www.unicef.org/evaldatabase/files/UNICEF_VN_MTBBE_Final_Evaluation_Report_Vietnam_2015-031.pdf/, 2015 (accessed on: April 15th, 2021) (in Vietnamese).
 World Bank, Implementation Completion and Results Report (IDA-46080) on a Credit in the Amount of SDR 85.4 Million (US$127 Million Equivalent) to the Socialist Republic of Vietnam for a School Education Quality Assurance Program, World Bank, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/531511498478745258/pdf/ICR00004103-06232017.pdf/, 2017 (accessed on: April 15th, 2021) (in Vietnamese).
 World Bank and MOET, Ethnic Minority Plan - School Education Quality Project, World Bank,Fhttp://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/574571468130208185/pdf/IPP3360v30Ethn1h131final0Box0338876.pdf/, 2009 (accessed on: April 15th, 2021) (in Vietnamese).
 B. Baulch, T. K. C. Truong, D. Haughton, J. Haughton, Ethnic Minority Development in Vietnam, The Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 43, No. 7, 2007, pp. 1151-1176.
 H. C. Truong, Eliminating Inter-ethnic Inequalities? Assessing Impacts of Education Policies on Ethnic Minority Children in Vietnam, Young Lives, https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:155ecf7d-da6f-4b50-b1d9-9dfb94c3b227/, 2011 (accessed on: April 15th, 2021) (in Vietnamese).
 H. A. Dang, A Widening Poverty Gap for Ethnic Minorities, In G. H. Hall, H. A. Patrinos (Eds.), Indigenous Peoples, Poverty, and Development, Cambridge University Press, 2012, pp. 274-309.
 L. C. Moll, C. Amanti, D. Neff, N. González, Funds of Knowledge for Teaching: Using a Qualitative Approach to Connect Homes and Classrooms, Theory Into Practice, Vol. 31, No. 2, 1992, pp. 132-141.
 C. G. V. Ibanez, Networks of Exchange Among Mexicans in the U.S. and Mexico: Local Level Mediating Responses to National and International Trans-formations, Urban Anthropology, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1988, pp. 27-51.
 L. C. Moll, J. B. Greenberg, Creating Zones of Possibilities: Combining Social Contexts for Instruction, In L. C. Moll (Ed.), Vygotsky and Education: Instructional Implications and Applications of Sociohistorical Psychology, Cambridge University Press, 1990, pp. 319-348.
 N. González, Processual Approaches to Multicultural Education, The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, Vol. 31, No. 2, 1995, pp. 234-244.
 L. Moll, L. S. Vygotsky and Education, New York: Routledge, 2014.
 N. González, L. C. Moll, K. Amanti, Funds of Knowledge: Theorizing Practices in Households, Communities, and Classrooms, Mahwah, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2005.
 G. Rodriguez, Power and Agency in Education: Exploring the Pedagogical Dimensions of Funds of Knowledge, Review of Research in Education, Vol. 37, No. 1, 2013, pp. 87-120.
 T. Cremin, M. Mottram, F. Collins, S. Powell, R. Drury, Building Communities: Teachers Researching Literacy Lives, Improving Schools, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2012, pp. 101-115.
 M. Llopart, M. E. Guitart, Funds of Knowledge in 21st Century Societies: Inclusive Educational Practices for Under-represented Students, A Literature Review, Journal of Curriculum Studies, Vol. 50, No. 2, 2018, pp. 145-161.
 M. R. Cortez, B. B. Flores, Sin Olvidar a Los Padres: Families Collaborating within School and University Partnerships, Journal of Latinos and Education, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2009, pp. 231-239.
 S. J. Basu, A. C. Barton, Developing a Sustained Interest in Science Among Urban Minority Youth, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Vol. 44, 2007, pp. 466-489.
 A. Calabrese Barton, E. Tan, Funds of Knowledge and Discourses and Hybrid Space, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Vol. 46, 2009, pp. 50-73.
 D. Henderson, L. Zipin, Bringing Clay to Life: Developing Student Literacy through Clay Animation Artwork to Tell Life-based Stories, In B. Prosser, B. Lucas, A. Reid (Eds.), Connecting Lives and Learning: Renewing Pedagogy in the Middle Years, Adelaide, South Australia: Wakefield Press, 2010, pp. 20-39.
 E. McIntyre, R. A. Swazy, S. Greer, Agricultural Eld Day, Linking Rural Cultures to School Lessons, In E. McIntyre, A. Rosebery, N. González (Eds.), Classroom Diversity, Connecting Curriculum to Students’ Lives, Porstmouth, H: Heinemann, 2001, pp. 76-84.
 J. Andrews, W. Yee, Children’s Funds of Knowledge and Their Real Life Activities: Two Minority Ethnic Children Learning in Out-of-school Contexts, Educational Review, Vol. 58, 2006, pp. 435-449, http://doi.org/10.1080/00131910600971909.
 H. Hedges, Sophia’s Funds of Knowledge: Theoretical and Pedagogical Insights, Possibilities and Dilemma, International Journal of Early Years Education, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2015, pp. 83-96,
 E. B. Moje, K. M. Ciechanowski, K. Kramer et al., Working Toward Third Space in Content Area Literacy: An Examination of Everyday Funds of Knowledge and Discourse, Reading Research Quarterly, Vol. 39, No. 1, 2004, pp. 38-70, http://doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.39.1.4.
 L. Zipin, S. Sellar, M. Brennan, T. Gale, Educating for Futures in Marginalized Regions: A Sociological Framework for Rethinking and Researching Aspirations, Educational Philosophy and Theory, Vol. 47, No. 3, 2013, pp. 227-246, http://doi.org/10.1080/00131857.2013.839376.
 H. Hedges, J. Cullen, B. Jordan, Early Years Curriculum: Funds of Knowledge as a Conceptual Framework for Children’s Interests, Journal of Curriculum Studies, Vol. 43, No. 2, 2011, pp. 185-205,
 L. C. Moll, Bilingual Classroom Studies and Community Analysis: Some Recent Trends, Educational Researcher, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1992, pp. 20e24.
 World Bank, Report on Social Assessment and Proposed Bias Avoidance Framework for Development of Curriculum and Teaching Materials for Vulnerable Children, World Bank, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/718061468334301767/pdf/SR690SR0P150050Box385425B00PUBLIC0.pdf/, 2014 (accessed on: April 15th, 2021) (in Vietnamese).
 T. K. T. Bui, An Investigation into the Use of Culturally Responsive Teaching Strategies: Teaching English to Muong Ethnic Minority Students at a Tertiary Institution in Vietnam Doctoral Dissertation, Victoria University of Wellington, Research Direct, https://researcharchive.vuw.ac.nz/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10063/3227/thesis.pdf?sequence=2/, 2014 (accessed on: April 15th, 2021) (in Vietnamese).
 L. H. Phan, H. H. Vu, B. Dat, Language Policies in Modern-day Vietnam: Changes, Challenges, and Complexities, In P. Sercombe, R. Tupas (Eds.), Language, Education, and Nation - building: Assimilation and Shift in Southeast Asia, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, pp. 232-244.
 T. N. T. Bui, T. H. N. Ngo, T. M. H. Nguyen, L. T. H. Nguyen, Access and Equity in Higher Education in Light of Bourdieu’s Theories: A Case of Minority Students in Northwest Vietnam, In N. T. Nguyen, L. T. Tran (Eds.), Reforming Vietnamese Higher Education, Springer, 2019, pp. 149-169.
 T. Rheinländer, H. Samuelsen, A. Dalsgaard, F. Konradsen, Teaching Minority Children Hygiene: Investigating Hygiene Education in Kindergartens and Homes of Ethnic Minority Children in Northern Vietnam, Ethnicity and Health, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2015, pp. 258-272.
 P. T. Dang, W. A. Boyd, Renovating Early Childhood Education Pedagogy: A Case Study in Vietnam, International Journal of Early Years Education, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2014, pp. 184-196.
 T. D. Le, T. T. H. Nguyen, I. Jooren, Inequality in Educational Opportunities and Outcomes: Evidence from Young Lives Data in Vietnam, Young Lives, https://www.younglives.org.uk/sites/www.younglives.org.uk/files/YL-CountryReport-Vietnam.pdf/, 2016 (accessed on: April 15th, 2021) (in Vietnamese).
 B. Baulch, T. M. H. Nguyen, T. T. P. Nguyen, T. H. Pham, Ethnic Minority Poverty in Vietnam, Federal Reserve Bank of St Louis, 2011.
 C. Lavoie, The Educational Realities of HMông Communities in Vietnam: The Voices of Teachers, Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2011, pp. 153-175.
 H. Hedges, M. Fleer, F. Fleer-Stout, T. B. H. Le, Aspiring to Quality Teacher-parent Partnerships in Vietnam: Building Localised Funds of Knowledge, International Research in Early Childhood Education, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2016, pp. 49-68.
 P. Thomson, C. Hall, Opportunities Missed and/or Thwarted? Funds of Knowledge Meet the English National Curriculum, The Curriculum Journal, No. 19, No. 2, 2008, pp. 87-103.
 C. R. R. Aguilar, J. Kiyama, M. Gravitt, L. C. Moll, Funds of Knowledge for the Poor and Forms of Capital for the Rich? A Capital Approach to Examining Funds of Knowledge, Theory and Research in Education, Vol. 9, No. 2, 2011, pp. 163-184.