Mai Thi Quynh Lan

Main Article Content


This paper aims to define the competencies that make up graduates' employability in today's changing world of work. The skills that make graduates employable are often independent of qualifications, but are influenced by factors such as lifelong learning, critical analytical thinking; personal interoperability; teamwork skill; and negotiation skills. The article analyzes secondary data from researches on Google Scholar and the Internet to determine the necessary skills and competencies that create the employability of university graduates. The results lead to recommendations that the training process should focus on developing reasoning skills and critical thinking, problem-based learning methods, support students to develop their arguments, pay attention to the leading role of the teachers in traditional Vietnamese culture. Teachers need to guide students in how to develop thinking, identify relevant facts and information, systematically analyze collected data and information, infer and evaluate evidence and events.

Keywords: khả năng được tuyển dụng, năng lực chung, sinh viên tốt nghiệp đại học, tư duy phản biện, đại học Việt Nam


[1] Maclean, R., & Ordonez, V. (2007). Work, skills development for employability and education for sustainable development. Educational Research for Policy and Practice, 6(2), 123–140.
[2] Yorke, M., & Harvey, L. (2005). Graduate attributes and their development. In R. A. Voorhees & L. Harvey (Eds.), Workforce development and higher education: a strategic role for institutional research (pp. 41–58). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
[3] Marginson, S. (2019). Limitations of human capital theory. Studies in Higher Education, 44(2), 287-301.
[4] Yorke, M. (2004) 'Khả năng tuyển dụng trong giáo dục đại học: là gì - không phải là gì'. Học viện Giáo dục Đại học/ESECT.
[5] Bennett, R. (2002). Employers' Demands for Personal Transferable Skills in Graduates: a content analysis of 1000 job advertisements and an associated empirical study, Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 54:4, 457-476, DOI: 10.1080/13636820200200209
[6] Knight, P. T., & Yorke, M. (2002). Employability through the curriculum. Tertiary Education & Management, 8(4), 261-276.
[7] Lowden, K., Hall, S., Elliot, D., & Lewin, J. (2011). Employers’ perceptions of the employability skills of new graduates. London: Edge Foundation.
[8] Wallis, R. (2021) Career readiness: developing graduate employability capitals in aspiring media workers, Journal of Education and Work, 34:4, 533-543, DOI: 10.1080/13639080.2021.1931666
[9] NACE (Hiệp hội các trường đại học và nhà tuyển dụng quốc gia Hoa kỳ).
[10] Sydney University.
[11] Edinburgh University, UK.
[12] Haigh, M. J., & Kilmartin, M. P. (1999). Student perceptions of the development of personal transferable skills. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 23(2), 195-206. Retrieved from
[13] Davies, H. (2017). Competence-based curricula in the context of Bologna and EU higher education policy. Pharmacy, 5(2), 17: 64-75.
[14] UNESCO. 2013. Intercultural competencies: Conceptual and operational frame-work. Paris: UNESCO
[15] European Commission. (2015). ECTS Users' Guide. Publications Office of the European Commission. Accessed on 2 March 2020.
[16] Amilburu, M. G., & Ruiz-Corbella, M. (2011). Philosophy of education and education in competences in the context of the European Higher Education area (EHEA). Philosophy of Education, 4(37), 5–17.
[17] Beneitone, P., & Bartolomé, E. (2014). Global generic competences with local ownership: A comparative study from the perspective of graduates in four world regions. Tuning Journal for Higher Education, 1(2), 303–334.
[18] Fallows, S., & Steven, C. (2000). The skills agenda. In S. Fallows & C. Stevens (Eds.) Integrating Key Skills in Higher Education, Employability, Transferable skills and Learning for Life, (pp.3-12). London: Kogan Page.
[19] Hager, P., & Holland, S. (Eds.). (2007). Graduate attributes, learning and employability (Vol. 6). Springer Science & Business Media.
[20] Hill, J., Walkington, H., & France, D. (2016). Graduate attributes: Implications for higher education practice and policy: Introduction. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 40(2), 155–163.
[21] Germaine, R., Richards, J., Koeller, M., & Schubert-Irastorza, C. (2016). Purposeful use of 21st century skills in higher education. Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching, 9(1), pp.19-29.
[22] Ennis, R.H. (2011). The Nature of Critical Thinking: An Outline of Critical Thinking Dispositions and Abilities. Retrieved from
[23] DeWaelsche, S. A. (2015). Critical thinking, questioning and student engagement in Korean university English courses. Linguistics and Education, 32(Part B), 131–147.
[24] Elder, L., & Paul, R. (2010). Critical thinking: Competency standards essential for the cultivation of intellectual skills, Part 1. Journal of Developmental Education, 34(2), 38–39.
[25] Elder, L., & Paul, R. (2020). Critical thinking: Learn the tools the best thinkers use. Foundation for Critical Thinking. London:.Rowman and Littlefield.
[26] Hill, J., & Walkington, H. (2016). Developing graduate attributes through participation in undergraduate research conferences. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 40(2), 222–237.DOI:
[27] Willingham, D. T. (2007). Critical Thinking: Why Is It So Hard to Teach? American Educator, 31, 8-19.
[28] Snyder, L. G., & Snyder, M. J. (2008). Teaching Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills. Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, 50, 90-99.
[29] National Education Association. (2012). Preparing 21st century students for a global society: An educator’s guide to the “four Cs” (D. Van Roekel, Ed.). Retrieved from
[30] Bennett, N., Dunne, E., Carré, C. (2000). Skills development in higher education and employment, (Buckingham; Philadelphia, PA :, Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press).
[31] Sánchez, V. A., & Ruiz, M. P. (Eds.). (2008). Competence-based learning: A proposal for the assessment of generic competences. University of Deusto.
[32] Harvey, L. (2005). Embedding and integrating employability. New Directions for Institutional Research. 2005(128), 13-26.
[33] Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (2011). Framework for 21st century learning. Author. Retrieved from
[34] Birgili, B. (2015). Creative and critical thinking skills in problem-based learning environments. Journal of Gifted Education and Creativity, 2(2), 71-80.
[35] Billing, D. (2007). Teaching for transfer of core/key skills in higher education: Cognitive skills. Higher education, 53(4), 483–516.