Oloyede Solomon Oyelekan, Hauwa Ajibola Salihu

Main Article Content


There have been series of advocacies all over the world to prepare future scientists who would take up the challenge of eradicating environmental pollution through the deployment of scientific knowledge such as green chemistry. This study investigated teachers’ knowledge of green chemistry in Kwara State, Nigeria. The Green Chemistry Knowledge Questionnaire (GCKQ) was used to collect the data. Answers were provided to the research questions using the mean and percentage, while the research hypotheses were subjected to t-Test and ANOVA. Findings from the study revealed that the teachers’ knowledge of green chemistry was high and significantly higher among experienced teachers. It is recommended that the chemistry teachers should endeavor to pass green chemistry ideas to the students and that the experienced chemistry teachers should carry the less experienced teachers along in the course of passing across the knowledge of green chemistry.

Keywords: Green chemistry, secondary schools, teachers, Nigeria


[1] J. Booth, Scientific Knowledge: Truth, Induction and Falsification, Richmond Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 7, 2008, pp. 1-7.
[2] P. T. Anastas, E. S. Beach, Changing the Course of Chemistry, ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society, Washington DC, 2009, https://doi.org/10.1021bk-2009-1011.ch001.
[3] A. O. Ajugwo, Negative Effects of Gas Flaring: The Nigerian Experience, Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2013, pp. 6-8.
[4] P. T. Anastas, J. C. Warner, Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice, Oxford University Press, New York, 1998.
[5] T. Orimogunje, Green Chemistry: Sustainable Pathway for Man and His Environment, Journal of Research in Science Education, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2016, pp. 76-84, http://www.jorise.com/Science_journal/GREEN%20CHEMISTRY.pdf (accessed on: March 5th, 2017).
[6] The United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2017, Definition of Green Chemistry, https://www.epa.gov/greenchemistry/basics-green-chemistry#twelve (Accessed on: June 24th, 2018).
[7] R. J. Dufresne, W. J. Leonard, W. J. Gerace, 2015, Knowledge Structure - A Wualitative Model For The Storage of Domain-Specific Knowledge and its Application for Problem-Solving, University of Massachusetts Amherst, http://www.srri.umass.edu/topics/knowledge-structure (Accessed on: January 6th, 2018).
[8] K. O. Oloruntegbe, I. O. Agbayewa, Greening the Chemistry Curriculum: Catching Them Young, British Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2013, pp. 223-232,
www.journalrepository.org/.../1367209287-Oloruntegbe332013BJESBS3606.pdf (accessed May 4th, 2017).
[9] A. Eryilmaz, H. Laslan, Determining and Evaluating Ideal Physics Teacher’s Characteristics, Journal of Education, Vol. 16, No. 17, 1999, pp. 53-60, http://efdergi.hacettepe.edu.tr/yonetim/icerik/makaleler/1203-published.pdf (accessed on: June 30th, 2017).
[10] J. K. Rice, The Impact of Teacher Experience: Examining The Evidence and Policy Implications, National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research, Urban Institute, Washington DC, 2010,
http://www.urban.org/uploadedpdf/1001455-impact-teacher-experience.pdf (accessed on: September 24th, 2018).
[11] American Chemical Society, What is Green Chemistry? Retrieved from
https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/greenchemistry/what-is-green-chemistry.html/, 2016 (accessed on: March 13th, 2015).
[12] M. Chen, E. Jeronen, A. Wang, What Lies Behind Teaching and Learning Green Chemistry to Promote Sustainability Education: A Literature Review, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 17, 2020, No. 7876, https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217876.
[13] L. B. Armstrong, M. C. Rivas, M. C. Douskey, A. M. Baranger, Teaching Students the Complexity of Green Chemistry and Assessing Growth in Attitudes and Understanding, Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Vol. 13, 2018, pp. 61-67, https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.cogsc.2018.04.003.
[14] L. Asveld, Towards Including Social Sustainability in Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Current Opinion in Green And Sustainable Chemistry, Vol. 19, 2019, pp. 61-65, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogsc.2019.06.001.
[15] K. B. Aubrecht, M. Bourgeois, E. J. Brush, J. MacKellar, J. E. Wissinger, Integrating Green Chemistry in The Curriculum: Building Student Skills in Systems Thinking, Safety, and Sustainability, Journal of Chemical Education, Volume 96, pp. 2872–2880, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.9b00354.
[16] L. Mammino, Roles of Systems Thinking Within Green Chemistry Education: Reflections from Identified Challenges in a Disadvantaged Context, Journal of Chemical Education, Vol. 96, pp. 2881-2887, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.9b00302.
[17] G. A. Lasker, K. E. Mellor, N. J. Simcox, Green Chemistry and Chemical Stewardship Certificate Program: A Novel, Interdisciplinary Approach to Green Chemistry and Environmental Health Education, Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews, Vol. 12, 2019, pp. 178-186, https://doi.org/10.1080/17518253.2019.1609601.
[18] A. Aulia, M. Mulyadi, Indonesian Teachers’ Perceptions on Green Chemistry Principles: A Case Study of a Chemical Analyst Vocational School, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Vol. 1028, No. 012042, 2018,
[19] J. A. Martneau, Distorting Value Added: The Use of Longitudinal Vertical Scaled Student Achievement Data for Growth-Based, Value-Added Accountability, Journal of Educational and Behaviour Statistics, Vol. 31, No. 1, 2006, pp. 35-62, https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.3102/10769986031001035 (accessesd on: October 6th, 2017).
[20] J. K. Aina, S. S. Olanipekun, A Review of Teachers’ Qualifications and its Implication on Students’ Academic Achievement in Nigerian Schools, International Journal of Educational Research and Information Science, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2015, pp. 10-15, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280238391_A_Review_of_Teachers'_Qualifications_and_Its_Implication_on_Students'_Academic_Achievement_in_Nigerian_Schools (accessesd on: October 10th, 2018).
[21] H. O. Yusuf, A. A. Dada, Impact of Teachers’ Qualification and Experience on the Performance of Students in Colleges of Education in Kaduna State, Nigeria, The Online Journal of Quality in Higher Education, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2016, pp. 52-61, https://www.tojqih.net/journals/tojqih/articles/v03i02/v03i02-05.pdf (accessesd on: March 10th, 2017).
[22] D. O. Fakeye, Teachers’ Qualification and Subject Mastery as Predictors of Achievement in English Language in Ibarapa Division of Oyo State, Global Journal of Human Social Science, Vol. 12, No. 3, 2016, pp. 1-7,
https://globaljournals.org/GJHSS_Volume12/1-Teacher-Qualification-and-Subject-Mastery.pdf (accessesd on: October 10th, 2017).
[23] B. Adeyemi, Teacher Related Factors as Correlates of Pupils’ Achievement in Social Studies in South West Nigeria, Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2010, pp. 313-332,
http://www.investigacion-psicopedagogica.org/revista/new/english/ContadorArticulo.php?391 (accessesd on: October 10th, 2017).
[24] T. O. Abe, The Effect of Teachers’ Qualifications on Students’ Performance in Mathematics, Sky Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2014, pp. 10-14, https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi= (accessesd on: November 11th, 2018).
[25] A. R. Richardson, An Examination of Teacher Qualifications and Students’ Achievement in Mathematics, Unpublished Master’s Degree Project, Alabama Auburn University, 2008.
[26] U. I. Ogbonnaya, The Influence of Teachers’ Background Professional Development and Teaching Practices on Students’ Achievement in Mathematics in Lesotho. Unpublished Master Degree Project University of South Africa, 2009.
[27] N. S. Okoye, S. O. Momoh, D. O. Aigbomian, R. E. Okecha, Teachers’ Quality, Instructional Strategies And Students’ Performance in Secondary School Science, Journal of Instructional Psychology, Vol. 35, No. 2, 2008, pp. 204-211, https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ813325 (accessesd on: February 11th, 2017).
[28] A. O. Unanma, H. O. Abugu, R. C. Dike, U. C. Umeobike, Relationship Between Teachers’ Educational Qualifications and Students Achievement in Chemistry: A Case Study of Owerri West LGA, Journal of Research and Method in Education, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2013, pp. 5-10, https://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jrme/papers/Vol-1%20Issue-1/B0110510.pdf?id=1649 (accessesd on: December 10th, 2019).
[29] E. Akinfe, O. E. Olofinniyi, C. O. Fashiku, Teachers’ Quality as Correlates of Students’ Academic Performance in Biology in Senior Secondary Schools in Ondo State, Nigeria, Online Journal of Education Research, Vol. 1, No. 6, 2012, pp. 108-114, https://pdfs.sematicscholar.org (accessesd on: October 10th, 2017).
[30] D. Boyd, H. Landford, S. Loeb, J. Rockoff, J. Wyckoff, The Narrowing Gap in New York City Teacher Qualifications and its Implications for Student Achievement in High-Poverty Schools, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 27, No. 4, 2008, pp. 793-818, https://www.nber.org/papers/w14021 (accessesd on: October 10th, 2017).
[31] B. J. Obomanu, M. O. Adaramola, Factors Related to Under-Achievement in Science, Technology and Mathematics Education (STME) in Secondary Schools in Rivers State, Nigeria, World Journal of Education, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2011, pp. 102-109, https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1159046.pdf (accessesd on: October 10th, 2018).
[32] E. H. N. Njeru, J. A. Orodho, Access and Participation in Secondary School Education in Kenya, Nairobi, Institute of Policy Analysis and Research, 2003, http://www.terremadri.it/materiali/aree_geopolitiche/africa/kenya/kenya_edu_sec.pdf (accessesd on: July 10th, 2018).
[33] J. Koomson, R. Bosu, G. K. Oduro, Implementing Quality Education in Low Income Countries, Institute for Educational Planning and Administration (IEPA), University of Cape Coast Ghana,
https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/IMPLEMENTING-QUALITY-EDUCATION-IN-LOW-INCOME-REVIEW-Koomson-Bosu/e7de4097b9688439458c947b9ff35901080b0062/, 2005 (accessesd on: Ovember 15th, 2020).
[34] O. A. Asikhia, Students’ and Teachers’ Perception of The Causes of Poor Academic Performance In Ogun State Secondary Schools, European Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2010, pp. 229-242,
https://www.scirp.org/%28S%28lz5mqp453edsnp55rrgjct55%29%29/reference/referencespapers.aspx?referenceid=1247892 (accessesd on: August 15th, 2017).
[35] F. O. Olaleye, Teacher Characteristics as Predictor of Academic Performance of Students in Secondary Schools in Osun State - Nigeria, European Journal of Educational Studies, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2011, pp. 505 -511,
http://www.sciepub.com/reference/179469 (accessesd on: August 15th, 2017).
[36] A. Ibrahim, Evaluating The Pedagogical Competence of Junior Secondary School Integrated Science Teachers, Proceedings of the 40th Conference of the Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN), 2000, pp. 138-142.
[37] L. M. Musau, M. J. Abere, Teacher Qualification and Students’ Academic Performance in Science, Mathematics and Technology (SMT) Subjects in Kenya, International Journal of Educational Administration and Policy Studies, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2014, pp. 83, https://doi.org/10.5897/IJEAPS2014.0386.
[38] J. R. Betts, A. C. Zau, L. A. Rice, Determinants of Student Achievement: New Evidence from San Diego, San Diego, CA: Public Policy Institute of California, http://www.ppic.org/content/pubs/report/R_803JBR.pdf/, 2003 (accessesd on: October 10th, 2017).
[39] S. G. Rivkin, E. A. Hanushek, J. F. Kain, Teachers, Schools and Academic Achievement, Econometrica, Vol. 73, No. 2, 2005, pp. 417-458, https://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Rivkin%2BHanushek%2BKain%202005%20Ecta%2073%282%29.pdf/, 2005 (accessesd on: October 10th, 2017).
[40] D. Aaronson, L. Barrow, W. Sander, W. Teachers and Student Achievement in the Chicago Public High Schools, Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2007, 95-135, https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/508733 (accessesd on: October 7th, 2017).
[41] R. J. Buddin, G. Zamarro, Teacher Qualifications and Student Achievement in Urban Elementary Schools, Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 66, No. 2, 2009, pp. 103-115, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0094119009000291/, 2009 (accessesd on: April 12th, 2018).
[42] L. Feng, T. R. Sass, What Makes Special Education Teachers Special? Teacher Training and Achievement of Students with Disabilities, CALDER Working Paper, The Urban Institute, Washington, D. C, No. 49, 2010,
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775713000873/, 2003 (accessesd on: August 15th, 2017).
[43] V. K. Raw, Quality Teaching, APH Publishing Company, Dew Delhi, 2003.
[44] A. O. Akinsolu, Resource Utilization and Internal Efficiency of Public Secondary Schools in Osun State, Nigeria, Unpublished Ph. D. Thesis, Department of Educational Management, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, 2005.
[45] J. C. Dial, The Effect of Teacher Experience and Teacher Degree Levels on Student Achievement in Mathematics and Communication Arts, Unpublished Manuscript, Baker University, https://.bakeru.edu/images/pdf/SOE/EdD_Thesis/Dial_Jaime.pdf/, 2008 (accessesd on: August 15th, 2017).
[46] H. F. Ladd, L. C. Sorensen, Returns to Teacher Experience: Students Achievement and Motivation in Middle School, Washington, DC: National Center for the Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research, American Institutes for Research, http://www.caldercenter.org/upload/Sunny_Ladd_presentation.pdf/, 2014 (accessesd on: August 12th, 2021).
[47] T. O. Ewetan, O. O. Ewetan, Teachers’ Teaching Experience and Academic Performance in Mathematics and English Language in Public Secondary Schools in Ogun State, Nigeria, International Journal of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2015, pp. 123-134, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275022486_Teachers'_Teaching_Experience_and_Academic_Performance_in_Mathematics_and_English_Language_in_Public_Secondary_Schools_in_Ogun_State_Nigeria (accessesd on: August 19th, 2020).
[48] F. L. Huang, T. R. Moon, Is Experience the Best Teacher? A Multilevel Analysis of Teacher Characteristics and Student Achievement in Low Performing Schools, Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, Vol. 29, 2009, pp. 209-234, http://Christyhett.Wiki.Westga.Edu/File/View/Is+Experience+The+Best+Teacher.Pdf/,C2009 (accessesd on: May 15th, 2017).
[49] M. Frenette, P. C. W. Chan, Academic Outcomes of Public and Private High School Students: What Lies Behind the Differences? Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series, Catalogue No. 11F0019M - No. 367, 2015, http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11f0019m/11f0019m2015367-eng.pdf/, 2015 (accessesd on: August 17th, 2017).
[50] K. J. Olasehinde, R. A. Olatoye, A Comparative Study of Public and Private Senior Secondary School Students’ Science Achievement in Katsina State, Nigeria, Journal of Educational and Social Research, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2014, pp. 203-207, http://www.mcser.org/journal/index.php/jesr/article/viewFile/2714/2681/, 2014 (accessesd on: April August 2nd, 2015).
[51] R. Sherafat, C. G. V. Murthy, A Comparative Study of Government and Private School Students on Their Critical Thinking and Study Habits, The International Journal of Indian Psychology, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2014, pp. 52-60, http://www.ijip.in/Archive/v3i4/, 2014 (accessesd on: March 14th, 2019).
[52] M. Buka, R. Bilgic, Public and Private School Teachers’ Differences in Terms of Job Attitudes in Albania, International Journal of Psychology, Vol. 45, No. 3, 2010, pp. 232-239, https://doi:10.1080/00207590903452291.
[53] P. A. Reinhardt, Applying Green Chemistry Principles to Laboratory Operations, Laboratory Waste Management: A Guidebook, Yale University, 2011.